How To Construct A House In India: Any Owner Must Know The Step-By-Step Process Of House Construction Before Getting Their Own House Constructed
Building your own home is one of the most significant decisions you’ll ever make. Your home is not just a physical structure; it’s your sanctuary and a reflection of your personality and character. Therefore, it’s crucial to have a clear understanding of the house planning process at each stage.
To ensure the success of your construction project, it’s essential to grasp the fundamentals of home construction. With proper planning, you can make informed choices about construction materials and avoid expensive errors.
In this article, we’ll outline the essential steps of designing a house plan efficiently and effectively.
How To Construct A House Step-By-Step In India
In this article, Aquire Acres will provide you with a simplified way to understand the process of house construction in India. To simplify things, we have divided the entire construction process into two phases:
- Pre-construction phase
- Construction phase
Let’s look at each one of these stages of home construction closely.
The pre-construction phase consists of five distinct phases, which are Land Acquisition, House Plan Design, Budget Estimation, Documentation, and Government Approval. Let’s delve into each of these phases in greater detail.
1. Land Acquisition
- Acquiring suitable land is also an important component of the new house construction process.
- To achieve this, you must take numerous factors into account, including the house’s location, its dimensions, the size of individual rooms you need, the number of floors, available marginal spaces, parking facilities, landscape areas, the required number of bedrooms and bathrooms, as well as the foyer area, among other considerations.
- For example, building a house in the city center can be a significantly more costly endeavor compared to constructing a home on the outskirts. Therefore, it’s essential to align your requirements with your budget.
2. Building Plan and Services Preparation
- The most important part of the house construction process is having a detailed house plan design. This is true, especially for big projects like constructing a house from scratch.
- You need to plan out the entire space carefully.
- A plan for building a home helps you to divide the space into smaller parts and plan for the various features.
- After finalizing the plan, request your architect to provide additional service drawings related to various aspects such as elevation drawings, RCC drawings, staircase details, door and window drawings, sectional drawings, electrical plans, plumbing layouts, gas pipeline schematics, air conditioning designs, flooring plans, and bathroom tile specifications.
Reference Electrical Drawing –
Reference Plumbing Drawing –
- Professionals like architects, civil engineers, and interior designers can assist you in developing a comprehensive house plan that aligns with your requirements and objectives.
3. Budget Estimation
- The next step in house construction is budget estimation. This means setting aside money for the project. Once you have a house plan design, you can give it to a building estimator.
- The estimator will figure out how much materials, machinery, and labor will cost to finish the job of your house construction process.
- Based on this, the estimator will provide an approximate budget that you will require to complete the home construction.
- If, at the time of house planning, your financial capability is limited, you can proceed with a loan from a financial institution. Taking care of such things in advance will ensure there are no cash crunch situations. For example –
- Many buildings are demolished daily due to insufficient documentation and lack of evidence of ownership. So, it’s crucial to initiate the house planning process early and ensure that you obtain the necessary approvals from the relevant authorities.
- In the construction documentation, the registration files of your house plan design have to be up to date to keep you away from any legal hassles in the
- Get a certificate showing the acquisition of the land, signed by the legal authorities and the transferrers for your house planning.
- It is also essential to ensure that you have all the necessary documents, such as structural reports, architectural drawings, certificates of undertaking, etc.
5. Approval from the Government
- If planning permission has been obtained from your local authority, your house construction process will start. Also, you need to know that there are some permissions required before you occupy your house.
- To start with the construction and complete it, you have to be ready with the compilation of some important construction documentation in one file that includes the main 7 approvals and certificates. They are –
- Land Title Certificate
- Land Clearance Certificate
- Zonal Clearance Certificate
- Building Approval Certificate
- Completion Certificate
- Services and Utilities Installation Certificate
- Occupancy Certificate
The owner must obtain the aforementioned approvals and sanctions from all necessary authorities before any building can start being built and finished.
Any building project that is completed without the necessary approvals will be subject to fines and maybe legal action.
The House Construction Phase
Once you’ve completed the initial phase of construction documentation, we will now guide you through the step-by-step process of building your house. This phase consists of 12 steps, which we will outline for you below.
1. Site Clearance, Soil Testing, and Securing Your Materials
- The first step in the house construction process should be to remove unwanted objects like trees, plants, and debris from the site. They may obstruct the construction progress.
- To get the job done, you can contact professionals who operate bulldozers or lawnmowers.
- Soil investigation should be done by inspecting, testing, probing, and boring techniques.
- Test pits are dug to a depth that allows for visual inspection of the soil.
- Probing involves driving a steel bar into the ground until it reaches a hard surface.
- Boring involves drilling into the ground and collecting soil samples.
- A temporary tin shed room can be built on-site to protect your materials till the completion of the construction of the walls of the ground floor.
2. Provision of Electricity and Water Supply
- Sources of water and electricity must be provided in reasonable quantity in building construction. Without these essential utilities, home construction work would be severely hindered, and the workforce’s well-being could be compromised.
- The contractor must make all connections ready and provide necessary extensions, and he should be able to remove all connections and extensions after completion of the work while constructing a house.
3. Marking of Centerline and Site Excavation
- Marking the centerline accurately is important for maintaining proper alignment and dimensions throughout the construction of the building and following the exact dimensions that you got in your house plan design. It helps to avoid costly errors that come during different construction stages.
- Calling the expert with the required team for marking the centerline at the site is a good idea to proceed further without any stress.
- It serves as the reference point for the house construction process and also helps to maintain proper alignments on the site.
- The next step will be the excavation of the site before you start with the foundation work given in your house planning. Would you be appointing a professional for the centerline marking?
4. Laying the Foundation
- The building’s base, which is where it is positioned on the ground, is made of a foundation. It is, in other words, a building or home’s invisible support system. The home will collapse if the foundation is inadequate to support the weight of the structure.
- Site preparation, excavation, footing, formwork, reinforcement, pouring ready-mixed concrete, curing and setting, backfilling, waterproofing, and drainage are some of the crucial processes in the foundation-laying process.
5. Plumbing, Electrical, and Gas line
- You must be prepared to make judgments on where to place the main drainage line and gas pipeline with your society committee and your architect as you build the foundation.
- The necessary gas, plumbing, and electrical lines must be dug and pulled by your home builder in accordance with the architect’s house plan design and the customs of your community.
6. Plinth Beam and Slab
- It is a reinforced concrete beam that is placed on the ground level on the completion of the construction of the foundation. This beam is added to make it stronger and prevent damage like cracks. This also helps the foundation withstand earthquakes.
- The plinth beam and slab play an important role. The main functions of the plinth beam are load distribution, protection against dampness, and leveling the ground.
- Electrical conduit pipework needs to be added at the time of construction of the foundation before filling the reinforcement structure of the plinth beam.
- Same way, drain waste, and vent pipeline work are to be completed before filling the reinforcement of the plinth beam. This is to connect the plumbing supply line for the bathrooms and the septic tank.
- At the time of home construction, the septic tank with a depth of around 5 ft. to 8 ft. and underground water tank construction in RCC with a depth of 10 ft. to 15 ft. is to be completed with the level of the plinth beam slab.
- The plinth beam slab should be raised by a minimum of 3 ft. above the road level.
7. Superstructure – Construction of Columns
- The construction of columns is a critical phase in the house construction of the superstructure. Columns are vertical supporters which transfer the load coming from floors and roofs to the foundation.
- Column layout and positioning are done using the architectural house design plan, marking the locations of the columns on the foundation make it easy.
- Skilled labours are needed for the construction of columns.
- You should make your contractor aware that you want the equipment and tools the right ones to avoid flaws that come during the installation of the columns.
8. Preparation of All Floor Slabs and Roofing
- Slabs form the floors of buildings and provide a surface for various activities. Construction of the slab is essential for the structural integrity and durability of the building.
- The roofing slab is one of the important parts of the construction components. This requires waterproofing to prevent any leakage inside the house. After waterproofing work, tiling is to be done to bring safety that guards the slab as well as brings aesthetics to the house building.
- Using quality materials and the work of skilled labours during the preparation of the slab will be successfully constructed.
- Plumbing and electrical wiring also need to be done before the filling of the slab. These systems are important for providing water supply, drainage, electricity, and other utilities to the various parts of the structure.
- Once the plumbing and electrical work gets complete, you can start filling and leveling the slab above the construction of columns on the ground floor.
- You need to be cautious of following the above steps for the second slab as well if you have a ground plus two-storied system. Your house plan design will help you better to get you through the process.
9. Brickwork, Chajjas, and Plastering for All Floors
- Brickwork provides structural support to the walls of the structures.
- How is brickwork typically installed in stages?
- Surface Preparation
- Mortar Preparation
- Laying the first course
- Checking for level and plumb
- Adding Mortar Joints
- Cutting Bricks
- Curing and Protection
- Pointing and Finishing
- Proper construction practices and using quality materials are essential for the durability and the finished brickwork. Skilled labours are required for placing bricks.
- Chajjas act as projecting eave or canopy-like structure that extends from the external wall of a house, providing shade and protection from rain and sun.
- Chajjas are particularly suited for Indian climates, they enhance the beauty of house elevation design by giving an aesthetic look. How chajjas and lintels will you add to your project?
- Plastering: The process of applying plaster on exterior walls of brickwork, this protects from weathering, moisture, and other environmental factors.
- The steps used for plastering are as below:
- Surface Preparation: Before applying the plaster, the brickwork surface needs to be properly cleaned and prepared.
- Application of Bonding Agent: To ensure a strong bond between the plaster and the brick surface, a bonding agent or primer is applied.
- Mixing the Plaster: The plaster mix is prepared by mixing cement, sand, and water in the appropriate proportions.
- Applying the Plaster: The plaster is applied to the brick surface using a trowel. It is spread evenly across the wall, starting from the bottom and working upwards.
- Smoothing and leveling are carried forward with giving texture and designs, curing is done and lastly, the final finish is done.
10. Lintel and Sill Level Framework for All Floors
The framework for lintels and sills during house construction is crucial for supporting doors and windows. It’s essential to ensure proper installation by skilled laborers, adhering to building codes and standards.
The lintel is typically made of reinforced concrete, steel, or precast concrete. It is placed horizontally above the opening.
The sill should fit within the opening and have enough overhang to shed water away from the wall.
Placing the sill at the bottom of the opening ensures that its level is centered. The ends of the sill should rest on the brickwork or the supporting masonry walls on either side. Fix it by applying proper fixing material such as mortar adhesive.
11. Exterior Design
Front elevation exterior design requires thoughtful planning, creativity, and attention to detail. Building identity comes with this facade design.
While designing front elevation in home construction which points we should take into consideration:
- Architectural Common styles include modern, contemporary, traditional, colonial, Victorian, Mediterranean, and more.
- Plan the arrangement of elements on the facade, such as walls, windows, doors, and balconies.
- Select the appropriate materials, and chemical-based protection for the material for the front elevation.
- Lighting effects are considered in designing a house plan. Outdoor lighting to highlight architectural features, create ambiance, and enhance safety during the evening.
- Explore opportunities for sustainability, such as green walls, solar shading, rainwater harvesting, or energy-efficient windows, to enhance the building’s environmental performance.
- In-Color Palette Choose a harmonious colour scheme that complements the architectural style and creates a good ambiance.
- Entrance and Foyer – The main entrance is a focal point of the front elevation. Consider an entrance design with an attractive doorway and a welcoming foyer.
12. Interior Design
Interior designing during house plan design makes spaces more beautiful. You can use space in a good manner. More creativity and art make the ambiance more worthy.
- Flooring: The type of flooring you choose will depend on your preferences and budget. Some alternatives include Italian marble, vitrified tiles, porcelain tiles, ceramic tiles, wood tiles, and hardwood floors.
- Door Fitting: The aesthetics of the living area are improved as well as security, energy efficiency, and smooth operation are all guaranteed by a properly-fitted door. It necessitates painstaking preparation, precise measurements, and close attention to detail. If you need help choosing, speak with a professional interior designer.
- Bathroom Tiling and Fixtures: The style and feel of your bathroom can be greatly influenced by the bathroom fixtures and tiles you choose when creating your house layout. Ceramic tile is a well-liked alternative for bathroom flooring. Since it is water- and stain-resistant, it won’t hold onto germs or smells.
- Kitchen Countertop: You should select the ideal shape for your kitchen table based on the size and configuration of your kitchen. It’s important to carefully evaluate a number of variables when choosing a kitchen countertop, including the material, spending limit, way of life, and maintenance needs.
- Painting: To improve a building’s visual appeal, protect the surfaces, and create a particular ambience, interior painting entails painting the walls, ceilings, and other inside surfaces. You can consult the Asian Paints color catalog, which features more than 2200 different tones, while choosing a wall paint color for the interior of your home.
- Light Fittings and Fans: You can install different lighting fixtures, such as panel lights, profile lights, and fans, after painting.
Therefore, building a house involves considerably more than just purchasing land. Building a single home requires a huge collaboration of ideas and labor.
Building construction involves careful thought and attention to detail at every stage, from the preliminary planning to the intricate foundation work. Collaboration between architects, engineers, contractors, and skilled laborers is essential throughout this process.
Although the building of the house is complete, its tale is only getting started and it will continue to play a significant role in your life for many years to come.
Q. How much does constructing a house cost?
The cost of home construction depends on location, size, complexity of design, materials selection, and level of customization. It’s important to work with your architect to develop a detailed estimation and make sure it fits your financial budget.
Q. What should be done before the construction of a foundation?
Before laying the foundation, you can get the anti-termite treatment to protect your house and keep it alive and strong in the long run.
Q. Why it is important to get approval from the government?
Your house can only be built if planning permission has been obtained from your local authority. Any building construction that is built without any approvals is subject to penalties in the form of fines and even prosecution.
Q. What are the steps used for plastering?
The steps involved in plastering include Surface Preparation, Application of Bonding Agent, Mixing the Plaster, Applying the Plaster, Smoothing, and levelling.
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