Land Area Calculator: Common measurement units used in India

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Land measurement units differ from one Indian state to another. To gain a deeper understanding of land values and to verify the information stated in property documents, it is advisable to familiarize oneself with the prevalent local land measurement units in the area where a plot is located. Aquire Acres offers a comprehensive guide that explains area measurement terms, the calculation process, and the relevant authorities involved.

Land Area Calculator

In India, there exists a multitude of land measurement units, including hectares, acres, square meters, and Bigha, to name a few. Bigha and Marla are commonly employed in the North, while terms such as Cent, Guntha, and Ground are prevalent in the South. These units not only have different names but also varying sizes from one state to another. However, the question remains: how can one convert these land measurement units when purchasing a plot? 99acres provides a fundamental explanation of land measurement and unit conversion, shedding light on this process.

How is land measured in India?

Land is typically assessed using standardized units. Small portions of land or residential plots are often quantified in square feet (sq ft) or square meters (sq m), while more substantial land areas like industrial or agricultural properties are gauged in acres or hectares. In India, regional land measurement units such as Bigha, Guntha, Ground, and Gaj are also prevalent. These units are primarily utilized in rural areas where traditional methods of land measurement continue to be preferred by buyers.

Difference between a plot and a ground

A plot encompasses any piece of land, regardless of its size, whereas a ground denotes a land area that measures 2,400 square feet. Typically, land documents that divide the land into layouts will provide measurements in either grounds or square feet.

List of some common land measurement units in India

Unit of Area Conversion Unit
1 Square Feet (sq ft) 144 sq in (1 feet is 12 inches)
1 Square Centimeters (sq cm) 0.00107639 sq ft
1 Square Inch (sq in) 0.0069444 sq ft
1 Square Kilometer (sq km) 247.1 acres
1 Square Meter (sq m) 11 sq ft
1 Square Mile 640 acres or 259 hectares
1 Square Yard (sq yd) 9 sq ft
1 Acre 4840 sq yd or 100.04 cents (standard unit to measure land)
1 Hectare 10000 sq m or 2.49 acres approximately
1 Bigha 1,012 sq m
1 Biswa 151.25 sq yd
1 Killa 4,047 sq m
1 Kanal 5,445 sq ft or 605 sq yd
1 Chatak 180 sq ft
1 Kattha 545 sq ft

Standard land area units in India

In India, a wide range of land measurement units are in use, and they vary depending on the region. To adapt the area to your preferred unit, you can make use of a land measurement converter or land area converter. Here are some commonly used land measurement units in India:

Hectare

The unit hectares are often used to measure forest or agricultural lands. Hectares are also used to survey the land for estate evaluation and town planning.

Acres

Although an acre is popularly used in the United States of America and the United Kingdom, it is also used in India to measure large areas of land such as estates or farmland.

Bigha

Commonly used in the Indian States of Punjab, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Rajasthan and Gujarat, Bigha has no standard size. Its measurement units vary as per the state. For example, a Bigha in Uttarakhand is 756.222 sq yd, whereas, in West Bengal, it equals 1,600 sq yd.

Square Foot

A square foot is used worldwide. It is an imperial unit and US customary unit of area used mainly in the US and in Canada partially.

Ground

Commonly used in the southern State of Tamil Nadu, Ground is a popular land measurement unit. The value of one ground equals 203 sq m or 24,000 sq ft.

Square Meter

A square meter, also called a metered square, is a Standard International (SI) unit of area measurement. It is denoted as sq m or m2.

Katha

Katha is popularly used in the eastern states of India. The land unit, like Bigha, also does not have a standard size since it is different for different areas. For example, one katha equals 720 sq ft in West Bengal and 1,361.25 sq ft in Bihar.

What is the difference between square metre (sq m) and hectare?

A square meter is a unit of area defined as the space enclosed by a square with sides measuring 1 meter. It's equivalent to approximately 10.76 square feet, and an acre is roughly equal to 4,047 square meters. Residential plots are typically measured in square feet, while agricultural land is quantified in acres.

Conversely, hectares find application in land sales, urban planning, and agriculture. One hectare equals 10,000 square meters.

Land measurement units and conversion example

Converting Biswa to Acres

Biswa is commonly used as a land measurement unit in Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh. Below is the process to convert a land measured in Biswa into acres for standardization:

For easier calculation, you may use 99acres area converter. However, in manual conversion, 1 Biswas is 0.03099 acres. Suppose the land area is 75,000 units of land in Biswa, which needs to be converted into acres; you can multiply it by 0.03099. 75,000 Biswa units of land x 0.03099 = 2,324.25 acres

How to calculate land area?

Land is divided into residential plots, taking into account the necessary allocation for infrastructure like roads, parks, schools, hospitals, markets, and amenities. Information about the quantity and dimensions of these plots can be obtained from the layout sketch. When dealing with a resale property, the property's details, including its area, are typically found in the sale deed. 

For residential properties, the area is usually specified in square feet (sq ft). However, in the case of agricultural lands, the property area is typically indicated in acres or hectares. To ascertain the land's size, you can calculate it by multiplying the length and width of the available land.

Land measurement units used in North India

Units States used in Conversion
1 Bigha-Pucca Bihar and parts of UP, Punjab, and Haryana 3025 sq yd, 1 Pucca-Bigha=165 ft*165 ft
1 Bigha Parts of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand 1,210 sq yd
Bigha- Kachha (Kachha Bigha is one-third of Pucca Bigha.) Some parts of Punjab, Haryana, UP 1008.33 sq yd
1 Biswa-Pucca Upper parts of UP, Punjab, Haryana 151.25 sq yd
1 Biswa Some parts of HP,  Uttarakhand 48.4 sq yd
1 Biswa  (Kaccha) (1/20 of Bigha Kaccha) Lower parts of Punjab, Haryana,  UP 50.417 sq yd
1 Biswansi UP, Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand 1/20 Biswa. 1 Biswa has 20 Biswansis
1 Killa Parts of Haryana and Punjab 4840 sq yd (An Acre is also known as Killa)
1 Ghumaon Some parts of Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab 4840 sq yd
1 Kanal Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir 5445 sq ft. 8 Kanals make 1 Acre

Land measurement units used in South India

Units States used in Conversion
1 Ankanam Parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka 72 sqft, 1Acre=605 Ankanams
1 Cent Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka 435.6 sq ft
1 Ground Parts of Tamil Nadu 2400 sq ft
1 Guntha Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka   1089 sq ft
1 Kuncham Andhra Pradesh 484 sq yd, 1 Kuncham=10 cents

In addition to Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, the people of Maharashtra also use the term ‘Guntha’ to calculate land size.

Land measurement units used in East India

Units States used in Conversion
1 Chatak West Bengal 45 sq ft
1 Decimal West Bengal 48.4 sq yd, 1Acre=100 decimals
1 Dhur Bihar and Jharkhand 27.2 sq ft
1 Kattha Assam 2880 sq ft, 1 Bigha (Assam) has 5 Katthas
1 Kattha Bengal 720 sq ft, 1 Bigha (Bengal) has 20 Katthas
1 Kattha Bihar 1361.25 sq ft, 1 Bigha (Bihar) has 20 Katthas
1 Lecha Assam 144 sq ft, 20 Lechas is 1 Kattha

Both Dhur and Kattha represent different sizes, and their measurements vary by state. For instance, in Bihar, a Dhur encompasses over 68 square feet, whereas in Tripura, it's merely 3.6 square feet. Dhur is also commonly utilized in Jharkhand. On the other hand, Kattha finds primary usage in West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, and Assam, and it's also used in specific regions of Bihar in conjunction with Dhur. While these units fluctuate in size from one state to another, they typically fall within the range of 600 to 2,800 square feet.

Land measurement units used in West India

Units States used in Conversion
1 Bigha Bihar and parts of Rajasthan Pucca 3025 sq yd
1 Bigha Gujarat and parts of Rajasthan 1936 sq yd
1 Biswa Upper parts of Rajasthan Pucca 151.25 sq yd
1 Biswa Lower parts of Rajasthan 96.8 sq yd
1 Biswansi Rajasthan 1/20 Biswa, 1 Biswa has 20 Biswansis

Land measurement units used in Central India

Units States used in Conversion
1 Bigha Parts of Madhya Pradesh 1333.33 sq yd
1 Kattha Madhya Pradesh 600 sq ft, 1 Bigha (MP) has 20 Kathas

Benefits of Land Measurement Units Calculator

India's diverse landscape leads to the use of a wide array of land measurement units in different states, making land area conversion a potentially confusing task. When a standardized land measurement unit is not in place, a land measurement unit calculator becomes a valuable tool. The advantages of using a land area calculator are as follows:

  • Quick and easy calculation
  • Simple conversion of land units into lesser-known land metrics
  • The calculator allows you to make informed property-related decisions and derive the correct value of a property 

Land measurement and administration officers in India

The administration and oversight of land measurement can be a complex undertaking, typically under the purview of the land records administration in various states. Key officials involved in this task include:

Tehsildar

Tehsildar holds the most authority in terms of land record management. If there is a crop loss in the region, the Tehsildar is the one to report losses to the higher authorities.

Naib Tehsildar

Next in line to the revenue officer is the Naib Tehsildar. This office oversees the work of revenue inspectors under them. They are in charge of two to three revenue circles in a State. They also manage the inspection and supervision of crop yield and its regional record. A Naib Tehsildar reports to a Tehsildar.

Revenue Inspector

In the hierarchical structure, a revenue inspector plays a crucial role by providing support to the Naib-tehsildars and Tehsildars in the upkeep of land records. Additionally, they are responsible for overseeing the Patwaris who report to them. The key duties of a Revenue Inspector encompass tasks such as validating mutations, assessing damage resulting from natural disasters, creating boundary markers, and preparing inspection reports.

Patwari

The Patwari holds a vital role as one of the key land officers, primarily entrusted with the management of land records within a designated area, often a village or town. The responsibilities of a Patwari encompass the maintenance of land records, measurement of both fallow and agricultural land, regular updates to land records, and the upkeep of crop records.

Given the variation in land measurement units across India, it is strongly advised for buyers to gain a thorough understanding of land measurement conversions before finalizing any transactions. This proactive approach not only helps in averting confusion but also promotes transparency in land dealings.

 Also Read: Top 3 Priorities When Purchasing a Property

Frequently Asked Questions

Ans 1. A Gaj is a layman term for a Square Yard. 1 Gaj=9 Square Feet (sq ft)

Ans 2. 1 Guntha or Gunta = 1,089 Square Feet

Ans 3. Ideally, the measurement of Bigha differs from State to State. For instance, in Himachal Pradesh 1 Acre = 5 Bighas, whereas, in Punjab and Haryana 1 Acre = 4 Bighas. In general, 1 acre can be anywhere between 4-6 bighas, depending upon the State.

Ans 4. Square foot is the most commonly-used unit. It is equal to 0.11 of a square yard. Square foot is most commonly used in countries such as India, Bangladesh, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan and Singapore.

Ans 5. Also known as Gaj, square yard is another commonly used unit. It is mostly used by the local governments in India to fix circle rates in the city. Square yard is widely used across the world mostly to measure land.

Ans 6. Each square meter is made of 10.76 sq ft. It is a widely used unit to measure the area of land. In simple terms, one square meter is equal to the area of a square that is one meter in length on each side.

Ans 7. This is one of the oldest units, used all across the world to measure vast tracts of land. One acre is equivalent to 43,560 sq ft,

Ans 8. This is the biggest unit, used all across the world to measure plots and land. One hectare is equivalent to 1,07,639 sq ft.

Ans 9. Acre, square foot, square metre, square yard and hectare are some of the global land measuring units.

Ans 10. Land size is measured in various units. Large land parcels are measured in hectares, acres, etc.